Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Chasing Venus Flytraps: A One Day Trip to Southeastern North Carolina, Pt. 1 The Plants

Last Saturday (3/24/12), Tom Field, Jared Satchell, and myself drove down to southeastern North Carolina to see if we could find Venus Flytraps.  Tom and I have been talking about this trip for years and we finally made it happen.  We left Tom's house in Laurel, MD at 11:30pm Friday night and drove the seven hours to a Nature Conservancy property in the Green Swamp of North Carolina.  I had done a little research and this spot sounded like it would give us our best chance at seeing flytraps.

We arrived in the parking area for The Nature Conservancy's Green Swamp Preserve about a half hour before dawn.  When we got out of the car we were serenaded by the predawn songs of Bachman's Sparrows and Southern Cricket Frogs.  The Green Swamp Nature Conservancy Preserve is made up of Long-leaf Pine savannas that are separated by pocosins which are swampy areas with heavy undergrowth of tall shrubs and Pond Pine.

Photo: Green Swamp Long-leaf Pine savanna, Jim Brighton

Once it got light we headed into the savanna by following a well marked trail.  I had very simple directions to where the flytraps were supposed to be and fortunately for us they were spot on.  After about 10 minutes of searching, I stumbled upon a small patch of Venus Flytraps.

Photo: Venus Flytrap, Jim Brighton

Venus Flytrap is native to an extremely small area in North Carolina and South Carolina.  If you drew a 60 mile radius around Wilmington, NC this would be the range in its entirety.  Flytraps only grow in soils that are low in nitrogen and phosphorous.  This type of soil is often found in bogs and wet pine savannas. In my opinion, Venus Flytraps are one of the strangest and coolest plants.

Photo: Venus Flytraps, Jim Brighton

Photo: Venus Flytrap, Jim Brighton

With our main target checked off the list, we went and explored some of the farther reaches of the preserve.  Because they burn the pine woods regularly, the understory of the savanna consisted mainly of wire grass (Aristida stricta) and small shrubs.  

Photo: Burned Long-leaf Pines, Jim Brighton

Fire is very important because it kills the undergrowth.  In a pine savanna habitat most of the plant species require direct sunlight.  The heavier the understory, the less sunlight plants like Venus Flytraps and pitcher plants receive, eventually causing them to die.  Long-leaf Pines are fire resistant and fire is an important part of the pines ecology. A young Long-leaf Pine doesn't resemble a tree, but looks more like grass.

Photo: young Long-leaf Pine, Jim Brighton

Even in this stage the young pine is very fire resistant.  The needles will burn, but the stem will remain alive.  On the University of Florida's School of Forest Research and Conservation website, they describe the young stage of Long-leaf Pines, "Unlike most conifers, the first 3 to 7 years of longleaf pine growth do not involve stem elongation. Rather, it remains a fire resistant, stemless, dense cluster of needles resembling tufts of grass. During this stage, seedlings are developing a deep taproot system below the ground and are capable of sprouting from the root collar if the top is damaged." 

Photo: young burned Long-leaf Pine, Jim Brighton

With a dense understory the young pines would not have enough sunlight to grow, especially since it takes the tree almost 10 years to gain any real height. Controlled burns conducted by the Nature Conservancy and the state are held on the preserve every couple years.

We saw many cool plants.  Below are the three species of Pitcher Plants that we observed.  

Photo: Sarracenia rubra (Sweet Pitcher Plant), Jim Brighton

Photo: Sarracenia purpurea (Purple Pitcher Plant), Jim Brighton

Photo: Sarracenia purpurea (Purple Pitcher Plant), Jim Brighton

Photo: Sarracenia flava (Yellow Pitcher Plant), Jim Brighton

Photo: Sarracenia flava (Yellow Pitcher Plant), Jim Brighton

We saw another type of carnivorous plant called Yellow Butterwort (Pinguicula lutea).  

Photo: Pinguicula lutea (Yellow Butterwort), Jim Brighton

Photo: Pinguicula lutea (Yellow Butterwort), Jim Brighton

Photo: Pinguicula lutea (Yellow Butterwort), Jim Brighton

Butterworts trap small insects with globs of sticky material that sit on the tip of fine hairs that grow on the plants leaves.

One of the other pine savanna specialties that we saw was the Pineland Daisy (Chaptalia tomentosa).  It is one of the few asters that bloom in the spring.

Photo: Chaptalia tomestosa (Pineland Daisy), Jim Brighton

We saw two species of violets Viola lanceolata (Bog White Violet), Viola septemloba (Southern Coastal Violet), and one hybrid violet, Viola x primulifolia)

Photo: Viola septemloba (Southern Coastal Violet), Jim Brighton

Photo: Viola x primulifolia (Primrose-leaved Violet), Jim Brighton

We found a small patch of Common Pixie-moss (Pyxidanthera barbulata).

Photo: Pyxidanthera barbulata (Common Pixie-moss), Jim Brighton

Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), a flowering vine, was growing everywhere.  It was by far the most abundant flowering plant that we saw during our trip.

Photo: Gelsemium sempervirens (Yellow Jessamine), Jim Brighton

Photo: Gelsemium sempervirens (Yellow Jessamine), Jim Brighton

Photo: Gelsemium sempervirens (Yellow Jessamine), Jim Brighton

The preserve wasn't only Long-leaf Pine savanna.  In between the savannas there existed dense thickets of small trees and shrubs called pocosins.  Luckily there was a trail through the pocosins or we might not have ever found the pine savannas.

Photo: Trail through a pocosin, Jim Brighton

Pond Pine (Pinus serotina) is a pine that is often found growing in or near pocosins.  You can easily tell Pond Pine by the many needles growing out of the trunk.  The needles are the size of Loblolly Pine needles (7" long) which made it easy to differentiate from the Long-leaf Pine whose needles are typically 13" long.

Photo: Pinus serotina (Pond Pine), Jim Brighton

One of the dominant shrubs in the pocosins was Inkberry (Ilex glabra).  Inkberry belongs to the Holly family and like its name the berries are black.

Photo: Ilex glabra (Inkberry), Jim Brighton

In one of the pocosins we found a Myrtle Holly (Ilex myrtifolia).  This is a holly that grows on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States.  Its leaves are only about an inch long.

Photo: Ilex myrtifolia (Myrtle Holly), Jim Brighton

Netted Chain Ferns (Woodwardia aureolata) and Virginia Chain Fern (Woodwardia virginica) were both found growing in the pocosins.

Photo: Woodwardia virginica (Virginia Chain Fern), Jim Brighton

Bracken Fern (Pterdium aquilinum) was growing in the dry sandy areas in the pine savanna.

Photo: Pterdium aquilinum (Bracken Fern), Jim Brighton

We had been skirting thunderstorms all day.  Luckily, they had been moving north of us, but in the early afternoon they hit our area hard.  We decided to drive the back roads of Brunswick County and see what we could find.  One of the common roadside plants was Yellow Thistle (Cirsium horridium).

Photo: Cirsium horridium (Yellow Thistle), Jim Brighton

Cirsium horridium (Yellow Thistle), Jim Brighton

Photo: Cirsium horridium (Yellow Thistle), Jim Brighton

During a brief break in the rain we spotted a flowering tree growing in a boggy area along the road.  We eventually figured out that it was Common Sweetleaf (Simplocos tinctoria).  This is the host-plant for King's Hairstreak.  Unfortunately, we didn't find any nectaring hairstreaks.

Photo: Simplocos tinctoria (Common Sweetleaf), Jim Brighton

With the rain still coming down we decided to head towards the coast to the Nature Conservancy's Preserve at Boiling Spring Lake.  After a one hour drive we pulled into the preserve's parking lot.  Immediately, we viewed white flowers that seemed to be growing everywhere along the parking lot and trail. The white flowers turned out to be Sand Myrtle (Leiophyllum buxifollium), a rare plant that grows in sandy barrens in the Carolinas and New Jersey.

Photo: Leiophyllum buxifolium (Sand Myrtle), Jim Brighton

It was getting very late and we were losing light.  Most of the habitat along the path at Boiling Lake Springs Preserve had been recently burned, but with the last rays of light we identified a few more uncommon plants. Two southern oaks were common in the preserve, American Turkey Oak (Quercus laevis) and Live Oak (Quercus virginiana), but the highlight was finding a small patch of Dwarf Woodland Iris (Iris verna).  These flowers were only a couple inches high and they were growing in a dry sandy upland habitat.

Photo: Iris verna (Dwarf Woodland Iris), Jared Satchell

With the day over we got back to the car and headed for home.  We left Boiling Springs Lake at 8pm and Jared and I got back to Easton, MD at 4:35am Sunday morning.  What a day! The next post is going to be on the animals that we saw on our trip.  There were lots of cool finds, like Eastern Glass Lizard!

Monday, March 19, 2012

Trilliums of the Mid Atlantic Region: Pt. 4 The Non-nodding Pedicellate Trilliums

For the final post on the trilliums of the Mid Atlantic region we are going to investigate the non-nodding pedicellate trilliums.  These trilliums typically have their flowers standing erect on pedicels, only rarely will the flower droop beneath the leaves. The species treated below are some of the most confusing of the trilliums.  Many of these trilliums hybridize and often the casual observer will not be able to get a flower to species.  Because some of the species are very similar in appearance and botanical structure  habitat, odor, and flower shape are needed for correct identification. Below is a drawing that shows the different flower parts that are discussed in the species treatments below.

Drawing: Jim Brighton

Trillium erectum (Red Trillium, Stinking Benjamin, Stinking Willie, Purple Trillium, Beth Root, Indian Balm, Wake Robin Trillium, Birthwort)

Photo: Trillium erectum, Charles Wohlers

Trillium erectum is the one trillium that I have been dreading.  It is arguably the most common trillium of the east and is also the most variable.  Many of the non-nodding pedicellate trilliums are closely related to Trillium erectum and hybridization is common, so sometimes a correct identification cannot be made. Trillium erectum is found throughout the piedmont and mountains of all the states of the Mid Atlantic region.  It can be found growing in moist rich woods with neutral to acidic soils.  The plant typically grows up to 20" tall.  The flower of Trillium erectum is usually a dark red but can be purple, white, and sometimes pale yellow.  The white form of Trillium erectum has been given varietal status and is labeled Trillium erectum var. album.

Photo: Trillium erectum, Emma Hogbin

Trillium erectum in its red phase is almost identical to Trillium sulcatum (Southern Red Trillium).  I have no experience with Trillium sulcatum and can find no definitive identification marks that make the separation of the two species easy.  That said, with some research, here is what I've found about trying to identify the two species.  First of all, in the Mid Atlantic region the two species only grow together in West Virginia and in the mountains of southwestern Virginia and extreme northwestern North Carolina.  Trillium erectum is supposed to have a shorter pedicel.  On the Flora of North America website they give the measurement of the pedicel for Trillium erectum as 1 to 10 cm.  For Trillium sulcatum the measurement is 6 to 11 cm.  So, if the pedicel is less than 6cm you can safely assume you have a Trillium erectum.  The main way that most people seem to identify Trillium erectum is that typically the flowers and sepals open flat unlike Trillium sulcatum which when viewed from the side has a bell shaped / candle snuffer appearance (the flower and sepals do not typically open flat) and the sepals are normally curled on the edges giving a canoe shaped look. Another difference for those that have a great sense of smell is the two species odors.  Trillium erectum smells like rotten meat and Trillium sulcatum smells faintly musty.  The Flora of North America website says the Trillium sulcatum smells, "...faintly musty like fresh fungus."  The odor of Trillium erectum is used to draw beetles and flies that are the flowers main pollinators.  Native Americans often used the plant to induce labor.

Trillium sulcatum (Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale Trillium, Furrowed Wakerobin)

Photo: Trillium sulcatum, CPBotanist

Trillium sulcatum is mainly found on the Cumberland Plateau.  In the Mid Atlantic region it is found in West Virginia, southwestern Virginia, and extreme northwestern North Carolina.  Trillium sulcatum favors rich woods and is often found growing on moist north and east facing slopes.  It also grows on stream banks. This trillium can be almost identical to Trillium erectum.  As I noted above in the Trillium erectum treatment, the way that most references use to separate the two species is the shape of the flower and sepals.  Trillium sulcatum's flower, when viewed from the side, has a candle snuffer appearance, whereas Trillium erectum's flower and sepals are typically flat.  Trillium sulcatum's sepals are often curled giving them a canoe appearance.  The odor is also different between the two species with Trillium sulcatum smelling like fresh fungus and Trillium erectum smelling like rotten meat. To make things even more tricky, Trillium sulcatum can have white flowers as well as purple.

Photo: Trillium sulcatum, NC Orchid

Even in its white form the candle snuffer flower shape and curled sepals will help differentiate the species from all other white trilliums.  

Trillium simile (Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Wakerobin)

Photo: Trillium simile, Plantgirlsquad

Trillium simile is a white flowered trillium that in the Mid Atlantic region is only found in the mountains of southern North Carolina.  This plant grows in rich mature woods often near rhododendron thickets. It is very similar to the white form of Trillium erectum and offers a true identification challenge.  The best way to identify the two species is by their smell.  Trillium simile has a slight sweet smell that the Flora of North America says is applelike.  Trillium erectum smells like rotten meat.  The anthers of Trillium simile are often longer than Trillium erectum, but there is some overlap.  The Flora of North America website lists the length of the anthers of Trillium simile as 6 - 20mm.  Trillium erectum's anthers are listed as 5 -12mm.  So if the anthers are 13 - 20mm the plant can be positively identified as Trillium simile.

Trillium grandiflorum (White Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Wakerobin, Large-flower Wakerobin, Large White Trillium)

Trillium grandiflorum, Plant Girl Squad

Trillium grandiflorum is a large trillium that grows over most of the piedmont and mountains of the Mid Atlantic region from New York to North Carolina.  This trillium grows in rich woods and river/stream floodplains.  This trillium typically grows between between 12 - 18".  It has a large odorless white flower that turns pink as the flower ages.  The petals of the flowers are large and overlap unlike the petals of Trillium erectum or the other white trilliums.  Another difference between the flower of Trillium grandiflorum and the other white trilliums is that the edges of the petals are wavy.

Photo: Trillium grandiflorum, Peter Stevens

Photo: Trillium grandiflorum (older flower), Matt & Charlotte Fletcher

Trillium pusillum (Dwarf Trillium, Least Trillium, Little Trillium, Dwarf Wakerobin)

Photo: Trillium pusillum, NC Orchid

Trillium pusillum is the only trillium species in the Mid Atlantic region that grows on the coastal plain.  It can be found growing on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland, Tidewater region of Virginia, and a few populations on the coastal plain of North Carolina.  Trillium pusillum also grows in the mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina, but these are in small very scattered populations.  There are two distinct varieties of Trillium pusillum.  Each variety has its own characteristics and habitat preferences.  In the Mid Atlantic region we have both varieties.  Trillium pusillum var. virginianum is found in the swamps of the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland, Tidewater area of Virginia, the coastal plain of North Carolina, and the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia.  Trillium pusillum var. pusillum is found in the mountains of North Carolina.  The Flora of North America says that Trillium pusillium var. virginianum grows in "Acidic soils in low, swampy woodlands along streams, Red Maple swamps that are very wet in spring, plants often grouped on hummocks, possibly with sphagnum moss."
the website goes on to say about the habitat of Trillium pusillum var. pusillum, "Low swampy woodlands, sometimes sphagnous, mixed deciduous forests, often associated with cherty rock or decomposing shale in beech and oak forests."

Photo: Trillium pusillum, Travel Stuffies

Trillium pusillum is a small trillium that typically grows between 6 - 10".  The flowers are white, but as they age they can turn pinkish.  Trillium pusillum var. virginianum has a very short pedicel that causes the flower to look sessile.  Trillium pusillum var. pusillum typically doesn't appear sessile with a longer pedicel.  The small size of the plant makes identification unmistakeable. 

Trillium nivale (Snow Trillium, Dwarf White Trillium)

Photo: Trillium nivale, Aposematic Herpetologist

Trillium nivale is the smallest trillium in the Mid Atlantic region.  It is native, but not common, in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, northeastern West Virginia, and western Virginia.  In the Flora of North America it says that Trillium nivale grows in, "Forested limestone-derived soils, alkaline glacial drift or loess, creeping soils at head of ledges, talus of cliff bases, crevices in limestone cliffs, gravelly deposits on higher floodplain riverbanks." Trillium nivale only grows between 2 - 4" tall.  This separates it from all other white trilliums.  It has a very sweet fragrance and is one of the first trilliums to bloom in early March through early April.

Trillium undulatum (Painted Trillium, Painted Lady)

Photo: Trillium undulatum, NC Orchid

Trillium undulatum is a beautiful small trillium that grows throughout the mountains of the Mid Atlantic region from New York to North Carolina.  Trillium undulatum can be found growing in both coniferous and deciduous forests often near rhododendron and mountain laurel thickets.  This trillium prefers deep shade and can be found growing in limestone soils or acidic humus.  The white flower with its deep pink center easily differentiates this species from all other trilliums. In my opinion it is by far the prettiest of all the trilliums.

Photo: Trillium undulatum, Jason Hollinger

There were many websites that I researched to write these posts on trilliums of the Mid Atlantic region.

The above link is to the trillium family page.  All the technical information on the genus trillium can be found here along with a key to all the trillium species of North America.

The above link is to the USDA website.  Every species of North American trillium is represented with range maps.

Susan Farmer's Trillium site -- http://www.goldsword.com/sfarmer/Trillium/
Susan Farmer's site has tons of information and lots of up to date taxonomical data.  Highly recommended.

North Carolina Native Plant Societies trillium page http://www.ncwildflower.org/index.php/plants/trilliums/

The North American Rock Garden Society has a lot of photos and information on different trillium species and hybrids.

There aren't many books that focus solely on trilliums.  The go to text is by Roberta and Fredrick Case, titled Trilliums.  Below is the Amazon link for the book.

The blog Get Your Botany On has a wealth of information and is really fun to read

I would also like to thank the photographers who made this post possible.  Please go to their websites and check out their photo.

NC Orchid -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/ncorchid/  NC Orchid has some fabulous plant photos.  I spent a long time perusing his flickr site.
Matt & Charlotte Fletcher -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/matt_fletcher/
Aposematic Herpetologist -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/38984611@N03/
Jason Hollinger -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/7147684@N03/  If you are into lichens, go and check out Jason's Flickr site.  Amazing lichens photography.

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Trilliums of the Mid Atlantic Region: Pt. 3 The "Nodding" Trilliums

In Part 2 of this post I wrote on how to identify the sessile type trilliums.  For Part 3, the "nodding" trilliums are going to be discussed.  The 'nodding' trilliums belong in the pedicellate group.  Pedicellate means that there is a pedicel that connects the flower to the stem unlike the sessile type trilliums whose flowers lack pedicels. The trilliums in the "nodding" group typically have their flowers on long pedicels causing the flower to fall to the side of the plant and often hanging under the leaves.  While it is possible for almost any of the pedicellate trilliums to have their flowers "nodding," for the next four species discussed it is typical for the flower to droop.  

Photo: Trillium catesbaei, Kestrel360

Trillium catesbaei (Catesby's Trillium, Bashful Wakerobin, Rosy Wakerobin, Trinity Flower, Rosy Trillium)
Trillium catesbaei is normally found in open woods with minimal understory.  This plant likes acidic soil and is often found near laurel and rhododendron thickets.  In the Mid Atlantic region it is only found in central and western North Carolina.  Typically, the plants grow from 12 - 16" tall.  The flower color can be white to pinkish. The petals are strongly recurved usually past the sepals. The flower typically droops below the leaves. The only trillium that may cause problems with identification of Trillium catesbaei is Trillium rugelii which grows in the same area. Fortunately, telling the two species apart is not difficult.  The easiest way to differentiate between the two species is by the color of the anthers.  Trillium catesbaei's anthers are yellow and are strongly recurved. Trillium rugelii's anthers are straight and dark purple.

Photo: Trillium catesbaei, Squamatologist

Trillium cernuum (Nodding Wakerobin, Whip-poor-will Flower)

Photo: Trillium cernuum, Matt MacGillivray

Trillium cernuum is a widespread northern trillium found from northeastern Canada south through Virginia and into the midwest.  In the Mid Atlantic region it is found in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.  Typically growing in rich deciduous forest in the southern part of it range, it can also be found in swampy coniferous woodland in the north.  The plant can grow from 10 - 20" tall.  The white (rarely pink) flower typically droops below the leaves.  The petals of the flower are recurved past the sepals.  

Drawing: Jim Brighton

Trillium cernuum is very similar to Trillium flexipes.  Since the two species do grow together in certain areas they offer a fine identification challenge.  The Ohio DNR website says the best way to tell the two species apart is by the length of the flower filaments.  In Trillium cernuum the filaments are at least 2/3 as long as the anthers.  In Trillium flexipes the filaments are less than half as long as the anthers.  Another definitive difference between the two species is the length of the pedicel.  The pedicel of Trillium cernuum is only 1.5 to 3 centimeters in length and Trillium flexipes pedicel is 4 to 12 centimeters long. 

Photo: Trillium cernuum, Vilma Bharatan

Trillium flexipes (Nodding Wakerobin, White Trillium, Bent Trillium, Declined Trillium)

Photo: Trillium flexipes, Jason Sturner

Trillium flexipes grows in rich forests and floodplains with lots of limestone.  Trillium flexipes is mostly a midwestern trillium.  In the Mid Atlantic there are scattered populations in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, and southwestern Virginia.  Typical plants are from 8 - 19" tall.  The flower of Trillium flexipes is usually drooping below the leaves but can be held horizontally across the leaves and rarely held upright.  The flower should never be facing upwards.  The creamy white flower petals are slightly recurved.  This plant is very similar to Trillium cernuum.  The differences in the two species are noted in the description for Trillium cernuum above.

Photo: Trillium flexipes, Keith Robinson

Trillium rugelii (Southern Nodding Trillium, Ill-scented Wakerobin)

Photo: Trillium rugelii, NC Orchid

In the Mid Atlantic region Trillium rugelii is only found in central and western North Carolina where is grows on forested hillsides and along stream banks and river plains.  The plant typically grows to 12" tall.  The flower of Trillium rugelii usually droops beneath the leaves.  The petals are typically white and are recurved.  The straight purple anthers make it easy to tell apart from Trillium catesbaei which has yellow recurved anthers.  According to the Flora of North America website, "Trillium rugelii has been much confused with Trillium cernuum in the past and it is the taxon upon which most reports of Trillium cernuum south of Virginia are based."

Trillium vaseyi (Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Beth, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Wakerobin)

Photo: Trillium vaseyi, Squamatologist

Trillium vaseyi grows in the mountains on steep wooded slopes and ravines of the southeast.  In the Mid Atlantic region it is only found in North Carolina.  The deep red sweet smelling flower of Trillium vaseyi is very large and typically droops below the leaves.  Trillium erectum is the only other red flowering trillium that grows in the same area as Trillium vaseyi.  The large drooping flower coupled with its sweet odor makes it easy to differentiate between the two species.  Trillium erectum has a foul odor.  Another difference between the two species is in their bloom times.  Trillium vaseyi blooms much later than Trillium erectum which has an early spring bloom.  Trillium vaseyi can bloom as late as June.  Trillium vaseyi frequently hybridizes with Trillium rugelii.  The photo below shows typical flowers of the two species with a hybrid flower in the middle.

Photo: Trillium rugellii (left), Trillium vaseyi (right), hybrid of the two species (center), Jason Hollinger

Photo: Trillium vaseyi, Jason Hollinger

I would like to thank all the photographers who made this post possible
Kestrel360 -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/8343980@N06/
Squamatologist -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/squamatologist/
Matt Macgillivray -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/qmnonic/
Vilma Bhataran -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/16454146@N06/
Jason Sturner -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/50352333@N06/
Keith Robinson -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/kjrob/
NC Orchid -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/ncorchid/
Jason Hollinger -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/7147684@N03/   Jason's flickr site is awesome.  Some of the coolest lichen photos on the web.

The regular pedicellate trilliums are up next.  Stay tuned!